How to Trigger Ideas Using SCAMPER Creativity technique

The best way to get a good idea for your problem is to generate multiple ideas as much as you can

SCAMPER technique is an Idea Manipulation Tool to guide us in generating diverse ideas. Rather than thinking original ideas, this tool provokes us to gather ideas from divergent fields, manipulate and fuse them into our requirements.

SCAMPER is an acronym for Seven Techniques –

S-Substitute, C- Combine, A-Adapt, M-Modify/Magnify, P-Put it to some other use, E-Eliminate, R-Reverse or Rearrange

We have to divide our Problem into different tasks/stages, ask SCAMPER questions at each step of the problem and generate ideas.

Consider the problem that one of our friends is manufacturing and selling Orange Juice.

He is facing difficulties in selling the product owing to stiff competition, apprehensive of his product position in the market and he understands that he needs to create a new marketplace or extend the market boundary to grow sales. Let’s generate ideas using SCAMPER technique.

Bear in mind that this is an exercise to show how to use this creativity tool so it will not have deeper analysis or Judging Criteria for selection of ideas. Some of the ideas shown below may not be practical/relevant due to my limited knowledge. Professional knowledge would lend a hand to come out with better ideas. Knowledge is the foundation of creativity. Without vigorous research, idea generation tool will not contribute any profitable outcomes.

Note: Few images are sourced from the INTERNET.

SUBSTITUTE

Substitute is a technique of replacing something with another thing.

We can substitute things, places, people, materials, processes, and emotions.

What shape can be substituted?

What form can be substituted? The form of the principal medium from Liquid to Concentrate?

What process can be substituted – Example – Putting cubes in the water to dissolve – Can we substitute this by squeezing

So, the external packaging and internal form after substitution – Can the external circle shape look exactly like an Orange? The proposed packaging concept is as follows –

Open the lid, take the slices out of the container and mix up with water to form juice.

What Place can be substituted? Can we substitute place of selling the juice?

Consider the manufacturer was selling in Supermarkets and the Juices were stocked next to Other Juice Brands.

Can we stock the product next to Breakfast items?

Can we sell the product in a fruit-shop or vegetable mart as an alternative to fruits than Juices?

COMBINE

“COMBINE” is a process of combining unrelated ideas to create something new.

What mediums can be combined?

Can we combine Powder and Cream form – Can the same product be made into a creamy form by adding a mix of a limited amount of water and another ingredient?

What materials can be combined to form a Blend?

Sweet Blend: Orange with apples or pears or grapes or pineapples or kiwis or mangoes or berries

Blend with Sweet roots like Beets, Carrots, Lemons, Greens like Mustard Greens, Lettuce, Spinach, Broccoli, etc..

Few of the slices could be of prescribed Blends, as per the consumer’s requirements.

What units can be combined?

Can we combine with Breakfast Unit?

Can we combine with Cake-Mix Unit?

ADAPT

Adaptation is a widely practiced tool in creativity.

“Make it a habit to keep on the lookout for novel and interesting ideas that others have used successfully. Your idea needs to be original only in its adaptation to the problem you are working on” Thomas Edison

What kind of Marketing or Selling Technique be adopted?

Thinking Small in Large Volumes – Sachet Marketing

  • Can we use effective up-sell and cross-sell?
  • Can we have “Value Added Suggestions” for the product? Example – Recommendations for Diabetic patients, the Best way and Best time to use the product to optimize the energy consumption, Solutions to elderly patients in the home, Suggestions for healthy gifting, Answers for kid’s health etc…
  • Can we have Deluxe(Maybe creamy with peanuts), Premium or any other kind of categories? Best sellers? Customer Favourites?
  • Can we adapt any customer reward or Loyalty program? Can we have loyalty ladder or 2-3 tier system? Can the reward points be in terms of calories similar to miles in airlines loyalty? Can the user go nearby coffee outlet and have an Orange Iced Tea? Can we partner with a Mutually Beneficial Company for reward points?
  • Can the rewards be non-monetary? Example – Can you help the consumers to make their own Orange sauce, Orange Jam using your ingredients and help them to sell?
  • Can we partner with a company/brand who already has many loyal customers?
  • Can we provide free samples to selected audience at chosen places?

How about a Vending machine at a public place dispensing shareable product – Similar to Coca-cola share can. Can we dispense Orange Slices, which people can share?

Can you have your customer support language as informal, approachable and friendly as NIKE brand’s twitter language – with phrases like, “give us a shout if you need help.”

MODIFY/MAGNIFY

“Bigger is better” – What can be magnified?

What can be Extended? Can we build a big Display Sculpture using our proposed packaging concept?

Can the sizes be Enlarged?

What characteristics can be Magnified?

Can we modify Ownership of the product?

Can we modify the purpose of product?

Can the outer cover of packaging be made up of Wafers Material, so people can eat?

How about modifying the outer shape to have emotion like a smile or any other feature?

Can we modify any procedure? Can we modify user attitude?

PUT TO OTHER USES

What else can be done with our sliced orange product? How else can it be used?

Can we supply Orange Slice Tissue Paper along with our product?

Can we provide compact, expandable, good quality mesh bags which can be used for carrying vegetables or fruits?

Can we provide Orange Chewing Paper? Maybe, a mouth freshener?

Can we use the waste oil from Orange as Orange Slice Sanitizer?

ELIMINATE

What can be Eliminated? Can we eliminate the center portion of proposed packaging? Can we eliminate the spherical shape of the packaging, as it is bulkier in size?

Can we eliminate human faces in TV ads or banners or posters – Can we animate with Donut Shaped Orange in TV ads?

Can we eliminate selling/displaying in Supermarkets? Then where to sell/display our products?

  • Display in Hostel Canteens, University Canteens
  • In Hotels during Morning Breakfast Buffet
  • Food Courts in IT Parks
  • In Restaurants during weekends
  • Orange Speciality Stores at select Locations
  • Orange Shaped Mobile carts at prominent places

REARRANGE

How could the Schedule be rearranged?

Instead of selling the product for all the 30 days in a month, Can we sell only for first ten days in a month? Can we limit the stock? Limited quantities per person? Members Only Option for the first 5 days? – Simply put, humans place a higher value on an object that is scarce, and a lower value on those that are abundant. So, Can we create an artificial scarcity, using SCARCITY HEURISTIC principle?

Can you re-arrange the Speed?

How about Slow Soluble orange slice, a Fast-soluble Orange slice recommended for specific applications? How about orange chocolates which dissolve very fast in the mouth?

How could roles be rearranged?

Instead of salespeople gathering suggestions from a consumer, can you encourage consumers to connect through WhatsApp and share their experimentalism with your product and rewarding them suitably? Can you connect them with other talented experimenters?

Can you make it possible for a user to make their own Jam, Orange sauce etc.. on their own using your product as the main ingredient with suitable initial guidance and help them to sell the jam, sauce to their network of friends, relatives, and others. Can you build this as a sustainable network?

CONCLUSION

We can apply all SCAMPER techniques in every stage of a problem definition. We can divide this stage into further sub-stages and ask SCAMPER questions. Example – Selling Process – Divide the stage into sub-stages like Prospecting, Preparation, Approach, Needs Assesment, Presentation, Feedback and Correction, Closing, Followup. Ask SCAMPER questions at each Sub-Stage, to generate divergent ideas and select relevant ones.

Any creative technique’s success relies on good research data, Knowledge, Concentration, Time to Incubate the idea and Evolve, and Verification.

Attribute Listing – Creativity Technique- An Example

Attribute Listing is a creative technique which involves breaking the problem into smaller and smaller parts and looking at alternative solutions to these parts.

Attribute Listing is a good tool for Incremental Innovations in a product/service. This tool is generally combined with other creativity tools like Reversal Technique, Analogical Reasoning, SCAMPER, Word PO etc…

 A customer’s Value Proposition is Greatly improved by the addition of many minor innovations, yielding a massive competitive advantage. 

Imagine designing a pen. The pen has following parts such as Nib, Cap, Tip, Barrel, Refill, Grip, Dip. Other than these part attributes, we can consider other attributes like shape, length, color, printing, and used for writing. Focus on one attribute at a time and look for alternatives. Example- Shape, Can we change the circular shape to triangular?

When you subdivide the challenge/problem into many separate parts, the challenge does not change, but your perception of it does and leads to new ideas – Michael Michalko

Attributes can be classified into subcategories like

  • Physical attributes: shape, form, color, texture, structure, sound, taste, door, space, density, location
  • Social attributes: responsibilities, taboos, power, ecological
  • Process attributes: selling, marketing, production, manufacturing, designing
  • Psychological attributes: needs, motivation, positive and negative emotions
  • Price attributes: production cost, consumer price, Consumer acquisition cost, manufacturing cost, sunk cost

Let’s look at an example that you want to start a Restaurant and need to come out with few ideas. Bear in mind that this is an exercise to show how to use this creativity tool, so it will not have deeper analysis or Judging Criteria for selection of ideas. Some of the ideas shown below may not be practical/relevant due to my limited knowledge on Food Varieties, Nutritional Values, Taste sensations, Restaurant limitations etc… Professional knowledge would lend a hand to come out with better ideas. Knowledge is the foundation of creativity.

Being a designer, we are biased towards real users. Therefore, I’m listing down attributes which a User feels important. As a user, I may not be interested in attributes like investment requirements, problems with hiring manpower(Though they are major factors from an investor’s perspective).

 

Please note that some of the attributes are interlinked. When we generate ideas for a Theme attribute, it would cover attributes like Lighting, Sound, Touch, and Furniture.

Let’s take FOUR attributes and look for alternative ideas

ATTRIBUTE 01 – FOOD QUALITY

Food Quality – External and Internal Characteristics that are acceptable to Consumers. Taste is one of the main internal factors, which should be different, and difficult to be replicated in the home. We have kept this as a separate attribute. Then, Can we look at external characteristics(Appearance – Shape, Form, Size etc…) of Food Quality?

How to visually Communicate Quality of Food?

Handcrafted, Workmanship

How about a Transparent and Fine Detailed plate of an Organic shape

 

How about Edible Diamonds in the food

 

How about serving in Delicate, Fragile Utensils

ATTRIBUTE 02 – INNOVATION in FOOD

SCAMPER is a relevant Creativity Technique to help in generating Ideas for Food Innovation.

S-Substitute, C-Combine, A-Adapt, M-Modify/Magnify, P-Put to a different use, E-Eliminate, R-Rearrange.

Assume, we are looking for Innovations in South Indian Food, IDLY. Let’s use C-Combine word for generating ideas.

IDLI like a bar chocolate with Nuts and Seeds? Stuffed IDLI? IDLI Burger? IDLY+YOGURT+HONEY+Food on the GO? Half-Colored/Half different textured IDLY? Doughnut IDLY? IDLY Sandwich? IDLY+YOGURT+HONEY+Food on the GO?

ATTRIBUTE 03 – THEME for RESTAURANT

Imagine we have chosen a theme of “Excitement”. Let’s generate ideas for the same.

Exciting – Hot Experience – Hot – Fiery – How about objects are on fire inside the restaurant? All food served hotter. The environment is also very hot due to raging fire.

How about a Desert Theme with sand dunes

Exciting – How about a hanging bridge between two walls and dine in the swaying bridge

Exciting – Delicate -Softness – Can we sit among cushions of flowers and Dine?

Exciting – Adventure – Wall Climbing – Can we ask consumers climb the wall to reach dining place? – A Healthy Option

Exciting – Thrill – Can the floor be of sharp rocks – People have to jump and walk, extremely cautious? Sit on rocks and Dine?

Exciting – Travel – Chilly – How about a Restaurant full of artificial snow?

ATTRIBUTE 04 – MENU

Let’s assume that we have chosen Rocky Terrain as our Theme. How can the menu be?

Rocks – Hammer to Break – Booklet in the shape of Hammer

Quartz Crystals – Bunch of Crystals – Each Crystal is printed with a food name?

Menu printed on a wooden log?

Menu inscribed on a stone?

 

The more we divide the challenge, the more attributes we can improve. By separating one attribute, we are able to improve focus, think flexibly and discover alternative ideas. Sometimes, Grouping of related attributes may inspire ideas.

Four Creativity Skills from Designers

“Practice makes it Perfect” and “Repetition is the mother of Habit”

We would have heard the above phrases very often. Then there is Malcolm Gladwell’s 10000 hours rule, that 10,000 hours of “Deliberate Practice” guarantees success, though there are confusions, counter opinions about the number of hours, but the truth is that “Deliberate Practice” makes things easier for us, as we save time and effort.

“Deliberate practice was a strong overall predictor of success, people who report practicing a lot generally tend to perform at a higher level than people who practice less,” Oswald said.

When we look at the differences between expert performers and normal performers, the experts have a life-long period of practice to improve their performance in a specific domain.

Practicing is not just how often you practice, but also the way how you practice.

To gain skills rapidly, we have to find a way to incorporate the practice into our everyday life.

Evidence shows that the creative experience only comes after considerable effort and time has been put into practice to help us generate ideas at will in short time. How will you incorporate this practice into your everyday life? Let’s look at people who have incorporated this practice into their everyday life.

DESIGNERS AND CREATIVITY

Designers – Product, Industrial, Graphic, UX designers, Architects etc… Designer’s job requires the highest level of creative processing and they have practiced thinking creatively on purpose. They cannot wait for Inspirational moments over breakfast or bathing to generate ideas since they need them every day to meet tighter deadlines and cannot charge for “Thinking Time” in their client invoices.

“Creative people have considerable cognitive flexibility, communicate easily, are intellectually curious, and tend to let their impulses flow freely.” Donald N. MacKinnon

Donald N. MacKinnon (2005) has outlined three different kinds of creativity, first is artistic creativity, the second type is scientific and technological creativity, the third type is hybrid creativity, found in fields of design, architecture, that exhibits both a novel problem solution and the personality of the creator.

The designers which I’m mentioning are of the Third type – HYBRID Creatives.

What can we learn from Designers? Yes, Designers sub-consciously use creativity tools to generate ideas but I’m not going to talk about them(“Lateral Thinking” or any other creativity techniques)in this blog. Anybody can use creativity tools and generate ideas with practice, but designers have certain strengths/skills which make them so successful in coming out with creative ideas, help them to distinguish between Cool and Useful Ideas. I will list some essential skills that I think are essential to creativity.

01 OBSERVATION

Observation Research is one of the main components of Designer’s work. As a designer, we have to watch people’s actions, Body language, situations, events, environments. A beginner’s mind is essential to start observing, by putting aside prior experience, pre-conceived notions and suspend judgment.

The first task in creativity is to “See Things Clearly” than “Think Things Clearly”

How can observation help?

The more you start observing, the more you will start to see things, which others don’t see.

  • You can reframe the problem -Observation skills help you to identify the exact problem.
  • What works – When you observe, you will subconsciously identify activities, events which people feel good and the reasons behind the same. This experience may come handy while generating ideas(Will discuss this under Cross-Pollination)
  • Knowledge – More people you observe, more situations you observe, you are going to gain very useful knowledge. Psychology to Behavioural economics to Jugaad Engineering to Creative thinking to People Management
  • Pattern Recognition – Recognising patterns will help us to come out with useful ideas

How can you practice observation?

  • Spend more time looking at the products in hand, going through the details, think about it – Do you see the sticker in an apple? Did you see how people struggle to remove?

How about your boarding passes, train tickets? Did you see how things are confusing, and did you check what you should see first?

How about observing different people while walking down the road? How about observing things in a supermarket – what to observe, See the type of packaging, type of fonts, what brands are kept nearby, what color spectrums, what is kept at eye level and the reasons, What other product categories are kept nearby and why?

How about watching movies, but looking at things other than characters and story? Watch short clippings in Youtube – Look at the products in the scene, look at the body language of character, Look at the wall’s color, texture, what’s hanging on the wall, legs of the table, the cushion of the chair etc…

02 CURIOSITY

We all know that Curiosity is a Questioning mind, with a desire and willingness to learn and explore more. Research phase coupled with observational skills have made the designers strong in “Social Curiosity” and “Intellectual Curiosity”.

Without curiosity, our mind may not recognize ideas, even if they pass in front of us.

  • Whenever we start a new project, we keep a beginner’s mind, throwing away all assumptions.This helps us to learn.

What you learn is more important than what you know

  • Deep Dive Research – Designer’s try to get in-depth knowledge, which in turn provide Intrinsic Motivation to be more curious. Tools like 5 Why help them to dig deep and learn more.
  • Time Investment – The more time you start investing, the deeper knowledge you can gain, develops massive interest in the subject
  • Designers develop personal interest in things, places, people, other’s ideas which further fuels curiosity
  • Every project is different for designers, so the more diverse knowledge, more the curiosity. When the project is new, there is an itching to find out more, more you feel you are ignorant, learn more about people and the cycle keeps going.
  • Spending time with people, listening to stories have developed Emotional and Mental skills, which in turn have increased curiosity levels

03 PEOPLE SKILLS

Real innovation comes from “Deep Contact with and Empathy with real customers”.

To find a useful solution for a user problem, Designers have to feel the pain of user. They go out, live with customers, talk to them. We may not learn much if we talk or live with only happy customers. Designers focus on Un-Happy customers, Non-Customers etc…

Designers project an image that they really care about the users, seriously like to solve their problem, provide confidence and inspire those unhappy customers.

They have developed an uncanny knack of making people talk about their own stories.

Whatever ideas you create, they have to solve a real user problem. Some of us may have the same problem, but a magnitude of problem and solution requirement may be different due to environments, where everyone has been brought up. When we apply different use cases(User Scenarios) to the solution which we have thought about, we will be able to differentiate Useful Ideas from Just Cool Ideas. Simply, we have to think like a User in different situations.

Stories help you to remember a lot of essential details, thereby you will have increased retainable knowledge. Discussion, interaction with people from diverse backgrounds will help to gain more knowledge, exposure to different cultures.

If you are stuck in a waiting room, bored, try to strike up a conversation with a neighbor, guide them to tell you an interesting story and watch their mannerisms too. You will be fascinated. Traveling in a taxi. Strike a nice conversation.

04 ANALOGY

Typewriter keys idea came from Piano Keys. More the knowledge a designer gathers, the more they can fit ideas from seemingly unrelated fields to solve their existing problems.

Analogical reasoning is creating something new and better through the unexpected mixture of seemingly unrelated ideas or concepts.

It maybe a creativity tool, but it has to be part of our subconscious thinking. Example, If I want to design a clock and like to gather ideas from Rain. Can the clock sound like pouring rain? Can the clock provide Thunder sound and Lightning at certain times? Can the clock surface appear like a cloud mist? Can the clock have water, which can be evaporated and condensed to colored rain artificially within this space? Can the clock shape itself one drop of falling rain? Can the clock provide Earthy Odour?

To come out with Analogy ideas, we need to have good Cross Field Knowledge. Working with different clients, different industries have provided sufficient knowledge to designers.

The more languages you master, it is easier to absorb the next one.

Tom Kelly, IDEO calls designers as T-Shaped people, with deeper knowledge in one field and sufficient knowledge in many fields. A designer needs to have some knowledge of Psychology, Behaviour Economics, Empathy, Research methods, Story writing, Business models, Business Strategy, Idea Diffusion, Creativity, Branding, Colours, etc..

What I’ve mentioned above are the major skills, other than practicing creativity tools. There are certainly other skills needed. Reference — Books by Tom Kelley, Denis J.Hauptly.

Why we love Maggi Noodles?

If “Xerox” is for Photocopiers, “Colgate” is for Toothpaste, then “Maggi” is for Noodles. – Economic Times, 2003

When Maggi was banned for a short time, there was more “sadness” than “Anger”. Looking at the messages of consumers, it appeared that Consumers were owning the brand than Brand owning the consumers. How could a foreign brand establish such a cult following? How could Maggi establish such a strong Emotional Connect? How could a product like this break the traditional behavior in 1980’s? Breaking a behavior will have huge resistance and introducing new behavior in its place is a herculean challenge.

“Maggi is the leader because it is constantly improving its understanding of the consumer to give them excellent and tasty products that provide nutrition, health, and wellness.” – Martial Rolland, chairman, Nestlé India Ltd., in 2006.

The ENTRY

Julius Maggi launched Maggi Products mainly to serve working women, who were left with little time to cook food, in swiss in 1882. Almost, 100 years later, in 1982, Maggi Noodles were launched in India, targeting the same segment of working women. Their positioning was a “Convenience Product” and an alternative for Meals and Dinner. Maggi had first mover advantage in Instant Noodles category.

The easy way to enter a consumer’s mind is “Being First”. Maggi created a new category called “Instant Noodles” in consumers mind and decided to utilize first mover advantage.

CHALLENGES

Nestle believed that Maggi had a high “Utility(Taste)” factor, which will help in selling the product. Unfortunately, Nestle faced with difficulty in selling after the initial phase. They were unable to enter minds of Indian Consumers as Rice and Roti have occupied a strong position.

Maggi was not competing against any competitor products but against consumer’s traditional behaviors.

Nestle understood that spending huge on advertisements is not going to change the consumer’s mind. They decided to do a detailed research.

IDENTIFY A BEHAVIOUR WITH LEAST RESISTANCE

During observational research, Nestle found out that people are not comfortable to substitute Maggi for Lunch or Dinner, as they prefer rice, roti and traditional foods for these routines. There is a huge resistance to change their behavior.

Jager Wender says, “It is not the frequency of behavior that determines the strength of a habit, but the degree to which the behavior has been automated and is being performed without cognitive elaboration”.

Thus, Nestle saw that the behavior is more automated for lunch and dinner, hence the habit is strong to break. So, the company started looking for occasions, where habits are weak, this process of change may be relatively easy to initiate.

Nestle identified “Evening Snacks” where User Behaviour is not strong towards any particular solution and at the same time, there were options for evening snacks, but those options had prominent problems.

They also observed that when children come home in evening after school, they are generally hungry and women have to cook something fast and give them.(Evening Snacks)

When Nestle looked at “Snacks” category, they had competition from

  • “Ready to Eat” bought out items like biscuits, Packed chips etc… -Consumers generally prefer to make it in at home than buy “Ready to Eat”
  • Homemade snacks were consuming a lot of time, which was not practical to do every day, particularly tough for working women.
  • Snacks from outside vendors were considered unhealthy

RE-POSITIONING from User’s Perspective

Nestle after User research and Market research, figured out that “Maggi” has to be promoted as “in-between” meals product and an alternate to “Evening Snacks”

Nestle also identified that Children liked the taste of Maggi Noodles. So, Nestle changed the target segment from Working Women to ” Children“. They were the ones who were ready to accept a tasty food(Their behaviors are not strong yet like adults), compared to older people who were still reluctant and attached to their habits.

“Maggi has managed to enter Indian homes to change the traditional food habits of Indian children on their promise of convenience. This brand has understood the psychology of Indian mothers and positioned itself for mother-child indulgence.” Business Week, a prominent business magazine, in 2006.

BUILDING CUES

CUE is needed to actuate a behavior, and the Cues are of 2 types – External and Internal.

  • Maggi’s advertisements of “Mum, I’m Hungry and Mom says “Bas 2 minute”” in TV acted as a huge external trigger
  • “2 minutes cooking” added a huge convenience factor, functioned as internal trigger
  • Nestle had leveraged its existing distribution channels and made Maggi noodles available in all nearby stores, thereby increasing the external visual cues.
  • Nestle distributed free trial packs in schools further to trigger the children
  • Utility Factor – Delicious Taste, which acted as an Internal Trigger to make people Crave more.
  • Emotional Connect – Children, their hunger, and happiness in meeting their needs.
  • Maggi sponsored “Hum Log” a popular television show in Doordarshan

ABILITY

People are generally resistant to learn or train new things if they are comfortable with their existing behavior. To make users change or adopt a new behavior, it is very important to make the product as simple as possible.

Simplicity means that a user needs less effort, time, money, cognitive effort to do the activities to achieve the goal and at the same time, those activities need no or less training and they are familiar with those activities.

  • Maggi’s 2-minute cooking tagline shows that working women can save TIME and EFFORT
  • Maggi’s TV “2 min Video” ads showed how to cook noodles – Consumers saw that there are only 2-3 steps in cooking, and those steps are very simple, familiar and easy to implement. It doesn’t demand any special skills – another driving factor.
  • Familiarity – India is known as the land of masala and curries. Nestle launched the masala Flavours (a taste consumers are familiar with), which was instrumental in making the brand a success.

Easy to Use and Easy to Learn are important elements in making a user to use your product/service

  • Consumers could see that there is no Cognitive visual load in using the product since it doesn’t involve remembering anything, process etc…
  • Consumers also realized that Maggi noodles will use fewer resources and also it uses readily available resources.
  • Trying out any new thing, some of us generally have a “Fear of Failure”. TV ads removed the fear completely, as it appeared very simple.
  • Maggi launched small packets and made sure that the packets are affordable so that consumers will try. Remember, Maggi was not sold at a cheaper price in 1980’s compared to other products, but then they came out with smaller packets, and the cost of those packets were affordable for many potential consumers. When the cost is high, there will be a resistance to try out a new product.
  • Easily availability of products due to strong distribution channels of Nestle

REWARD

What is a Reward? Why is it important? How does it feel when a person receives a reward? The reward is the reason, why people will repeat your behavior. A pleasant experience is a reward. When he or she experience intense feelings of pleasure, the reward circuitry is activated in the brain—with dopamine(neurotransmitters) carrying the message.

Due to Dopamine release, Our brains like us to repeat things that we enjoy—like eating a good meal. That’s why a little child often shouts “again!” when you do something to make her laugh.

  • When you review user messages of Maggi, one factor stands out – “DELICIOUS TASTE” – More than eating, it is Craving to Eat is a major pleasure. This craving is a reward and acts as Internal Trigger too.
  • Nestle gave gifts when consumers returned empty packets – An extrinsic reward. The gifts included Utensils, toys focusing the target segment. Gifts are based on the number of packets you return – Before you know about the reward program, you have already earned one empty packet cover, if you have bought one or got it free.
  • When you come home tired, there is a pleasure to feed your child quickly – A psychological, intrinsic reward.
  • Faster, you reach your goal(sense of accomplishment) is also a reward – 2 minutes of cooking tagline
  • Nobody is going to change his or her behavior for short term gains – If the product is going to affect health in long run, people may not adopt the product. Nestle was careful not to use “Ready to EAT” words in its promotion. Their tagline was “Fast to cook, Good to Eat”
  • Consumers also seek out rewards which their peers have achieved, a social obligation, acceptance – Nestle targeted children of Upper Middle class and Upper Class where Social Proof is high, where the idea can spread faster.

RE-INVENTION

Whatever the product we design if we allow some scope for the user to modify/innovate the product to meet their needs, thereby improve its overall compatibility. If there is scope for the re-invention, product’s usage will increase and cater to a variety of needs of customers, as India itself different from north to south. Their tastes vary differently.

Example – The housewife could be creative and add her own variation to the recipe by adding different vegetables to the noodles.

CONCLUSION

For Maggi’s success, there are other factors too like Consistency in taste, Brand Value etc… which is not covered in this article. References – Books by Nir Eyal, BJ Fogg and Stephen Wendel, Everett Rogers.